Web Hosting Manual & Guide
1.1 CHAPTER ONE - General Features
1.2 WHAT DO YOU OFFER?
1.3 How Do I Use This Program??
1.3.1 Mail Related Items
1.3.2 Managing the Linux Account
1.2 WHAT DO YOU OFFER?
YourMagicHost offers storage
space for web pages with global public access to
those pages over the Internet. We also offer a
limited form of program execution known as
"cgi-bin". Our computers are Pentium III, or
Pentium IV, class machines running the latest
version of Apache web server software over the
latest release of the Red Hat Linux operating
system. Apache responds to web page fetch requests
from remote browsers while Linux is one of several
variants of the Unix operating system.
1.2.1 Web space
Every customer gets his own password protected username under Linux. By logging in to his username, the
customer gains access to his web storage space.
Every username "owns" a structure of disk subdirectories in the Linux file system. The
"root" of this structure is the "home" directory, found at path "/home/username". Note that this is
somewhat similar to the MS-DOS directory structure, except that there is no drive letter
and forward slashes are used instead of backward slashes. Inside the home directory is
a subdirectory named "public_html". Every customer has his own separate "public_html" subdirectory.
Files placed in "public_html" are visible to remote browsers over the Internet. As many clients
are used to having their main directory refered to as "www", we have created another directory as
such. When www is attempted to be accessed, the directory is automatically redirected to the
correct public_html directory. For example, when a browser asks for URL http://yourname.com/page.php, Apache looks for
the file /home/username/public_html/page.php and sends it out. If you have not registered
"yourdomain.com" with InterNIC and specified YourMagicHost as its domain server, then the remote
browser must ask for URL http://YourMagicHost.com/~username/page.php to get the page, or the static IP number that you were
supplied. Please be advised that static IPs may change from time to time, due to server
re-arrangements that sometimes are necessary. Username/logins are always the first 8 digits of
your domain name, or the domain name itself if it is less than 8 digits.
The username for yourdomain.com would be "yourdoma".
The username for here.com would be "here".
Passwords are always 4-10 digits in length, as supplied by you. Now that we know where the files have to be located in
order to be visible from the Internet, just how do we put the files there? There are several ways,
depending on the local computer. For the Macintosh, a program called "Fetch" is used.
Documentation on Fetch is not yet available.
However, note that the binary mode referred to throughout the manual corresponds to the 'raw' mode in Fetch. For MS-DOS systems,
communications programs such as ProComm emulate dumb terminals for connection to Linux.
.) For UNIX systems, use rlogin to
connect. (See 184.108.40.206
)For Microsoft Windows systems, use
FTP (See 220.127.116.11
). This is the easiest method.
18.104.22.168 MS-DOS Dumb Terminal Access
Set up your dumb terminal program under MS-DOS to connect to your local access provider. Log into your UNIX
shell account and the use rlogin to get to your YourMagicHost userid. Now follow the procedures
22.214.171.124 UNIX Shell Access
After you have used rlogin to get to your YourMagicHost userid, you should be at the shell prompt in your home directory. Type
to enter your www directory. Then use rz to upload files into your www directory.
Please don't upload web files into your home directory! One way to update pages is to enter your account with
the command rlogin -8 -l user
where user is your userid. This enables 8 bit access so zmodem can
work. (Note this is the letter l, not the number 1.) Then type rz -a
to upload a file or
files to your directory. Type rz -ao
if you wish to overwrite a file that is already there.
You can edit files offline using a DOS editor and then upload them and test them before going
offline. The advantage of this over ftp is that you can then immediately run other shell
commands after the files have been transferred. For example, you may wish to use lynx to test them or
mail to send someone mail. Note that the sequence rlogin -8 -l user
plus typing in your password SHOULD be done via a modem script. You really don't want to be typing this stuff on a
daily basis. Name your script YourMagicHost.(Just be sure that the disk
where your script is kept is physically guarded.)
126.96.36.199 MS Windows Access
This method is nearly intuitive and almost idiot-proof. You need an FTP program, many of which are
available at Download.com
. We recommend CuteFTP or
WS_ftp. Then double-click on the FTP icon. This will bring up a "session profile" form. Under
hostname, fill in your domain name (yourdomain.com, for example). Under username,
fill in your username. Under password, put in your YourMagicHost password. Make sure the checkbox for
"Anonymous Login" is CLEARED. At the bottom of the form, under "initial
directories", you may specify which directories you want to work with on your local system and on
your YourMagicHost system. Under "remote host", specify /home/username/public_html. Under "local
PC", specify the DOS path where your web files are located. Hit the OK button. This will cause you to be connected
to your YourMagicHost acount. The right side of the screen will show the files in your public_html
directory while the left side will show your local PC files. To send a file from your local PC to
your YourMagicHost public_html directory, click on the file you want to send and then click on the
right arrow button. To send a file the other way, click on the left arrow button. You will see two option radio
buttons under the right window labeled "ASCII" and "Binary". For all text files, including html
files, and perl cgi programs, be sure to select "ASCII" so the end-of-line conventions are handled
correctly. Graphic/image files and sound files should be transferred in binary mode.
188.8.131.52 The "home" page and HTML
The filename of your home page should be index.htm or index.php. You must try them both, for each
account may be set up differently., however, one of the two is sure to work. The web server will
automatically send the file at path /home/username/public_html/index.htm or /home/username/public_html/index.php when a
browser specifies http://yourdomain.com.
1.2.2 FTP Space
All accounts, except non static IP accounts, come preset up with an ANONYMOUS ftp area where files
can be uploaded or downloaded by anyone in the world without a password. This area is necessarily
separate from web space and password protected ftp space for obvious reasons. If you want both upload
and download anonymous ftp, you may want a read-only subdirectory for distributing files and
a separate write-only subdirectory for receiving files. This is to prevent files that you are
distributing from being destroyed accidentally, and to prevent files uploaded to you from being
distributed to others before you examine them. The location of this directory is /home/username/public_ftp/
Thru the browser control panel, you may also set up individual logins for extra FTP users, whom can have
access to a special
subdirectory of your public_html directory. See the control panel instructions for
information how to go about this.
1.2.3 Telnet/SSH Account
A telnet/ssh account is just another name for a Unix/Linux username. You need at least one to be
able to upload/download your html files. When you sign up with YourMagicHost, you get a username and
password. You may ask for more than one such username. Regular accounts include one, Additional
setups are available for an additional charge. Multiple telnet/ssh accounts
are useful when more than one staff member will be working on the domain. You may wish to set it up
so that different accounts have different security levels. For example, you could make it so only one
telnet account could access your list server data. For those of you wishing sophisticated access
control, we will be happy to create additional groups for your domain. That may not make sense to
those of you who are not Unix veterans, but it can allow you to have one account able to access only
one directory while your others can access all directories, including that one. Some
of the programs available at the shell prompt are mail
, a primitive email program, and
, a much more powerful email program, ftp
, to FTP onto other sites,
, to telnet onto other sites, and lynx
, a text-only WWW browser, pico
an easy to use text editor.NOTE
Telnet is disabled due security reasons - Please use SSH access.
1.2.4 Cgi-bin Access
"CGI" stands for "Common Gateway Interface", a fancy name meaning computer programs running on the web
server that can be invoked from a WWW page at the browser. The "bin" part alludes to the binary
executables that result from compiled or assembled programs. It is a bit misleading because cgis can
also be Unix shell scripts or interpreted languages like Perl. A typical use for cgi is the processing of online
forms. When the user fills in the boxes on the form and hits the SUBMIT button, the cgi program
specified in the html will be run at the server, and the information in the boxes become available
to the program as parameters. The program, being a program, can then do anything the programmer
wanted it to do. "cgiemail", for example, is a canned program written in C that gathers up the
contents of the boxes on the form and emails them to a specified destination, then sends a WWW page
confirming the action. "imagemap" is another common use for cgi. Here, the X-Y coordinates of the
pointer on an image are correlated with a specification table, so that clicking on different
parts of the image will result in different links being followed. Other cgis might ask for a
password, check the password, then access a database for requested information. What it does
is up to the programmer, but we do ask that the cgis are reasonable in their usage of CPU time and
memory. While we do not require that they be submitted for approval first, out of control
programs that hog the CPU and system resources will be hunted down and killed by our system
monitors. Standard pre-installed system cgis reside in the YourMagicHost public cgi-sys
subdirectory. Your presonal cgis reside in a web subdirectory named cgi-bin directory under your
public_html directory. If your domain is named company.com, you would then access your scripts as
http://www.company.com/cgi-bin, while the pre-installed system scripts are located at
http://www.company.com/cgi-sys. You may need to set up the preinstalled scripts thru your browser
control panel to see the correct HTML that is used for such. The browser control panel will walk you
thru the simple processes. See chapter three
for more details on CGI.
1.2.5 Real Audio™ Server & Real Video™ Server
are real time audio and/or video transmission/playing systems.
A digital audio or video stream is transmitted from the server over the internet to the destination and
played immediately, rather than being stored to disk first and then played. With this feature,
visitors to your website need not wait for several minutes, or longer, to listen to an audio file, or
view a video file, while the large file is downloading. With Real™ technology, the
audio/video starts playing from the first few bytes of data that is downloaded. This is called
streaming technology. Each Real™ audio or video file you wish to transmit
requires two files: a metafile with extension .ram, and the digital audio or video clip itself,
with extension .ra. The .ram file holds one or more lines of ASCII text, each of which references
the .ra file to be played when the .ram file is accessed by the browser. Entries in .ram files have
Place your .ram and .ra files in the realaudio, or realvideo, subdirectory under your public_html directory. .ram
files must be uploaded in ASCII mode while .ra files must be uploaded in BINARY mode. You may then access these files at
1.2.6 Capture Mail for Domain
Thru the browser control panel, you can configure your account to redirect all mail for your domain to
arrive at one email
address. You may also configure all mail not specified otherwise to arrive at the "default"
address. If no mail address is specified to capture all your non-specified mail, the mail will
automatically default to your account username mailbox.
1.2.7 SMTP Mail Server™
YourMagicHost has the sophisticated SMTP Mail Server™ mailing system. In addition to
being able to have nearly unlimited auto-responders by simply adding text files to your browser control panel, you can also
redirect mail for everyone in your domain by simply clicking a few buttons.
An auto-responder is set up thru the browser control panel with the email address of email@example.com and says: We offer you
help. Mail to firstname.lastname@example.org will return the message "We offer you help".
These messages can be any size, even 100K!
Set up thru the browser control panel mail from "email@example.com" to be redirected to "firstname.lastname@example.org ",
by simply clicking a button. This would redirect mail for email@example.com to firstname.lastname@example.org,
etc. Mail to a user that was not set up as a pop account, nor as a alias/forwarder, would be sent to the default user
1.3 How Do I Use This Program?
Note that with the exception of the description of using Eudora
commands you are told to type in this section assume you have logged on to the YourMagicHost server with telnet or rlogin.
1.3.1 Mail Related Items
READING - Type mail to see if you have any mail. If you have any mail hit enter multiple times and all
your messages will be displayed.
SENDING - type mail -s "juice" YourMagicHost@YourMagicHost.com<juice.msg to send the message juice.msg with the subject juice
Type mail -s "juice" YourMagicHost@YourMagicHost.com juice is good to send the message juice is
good with the subject juice to YourMagicHost@YourMagicHost.com
Type mail YourMagicHost@YourMagicHost.com juice is good to send the message juice is good with no subject to
Type pine to enter a more advanced mail program.
Type L to select Folder List and then inbox to see what messages that you have received.
The rest of this program is quite easy to use. Why use mail instead? Mail has the advantage that it is
easy to send files that you composed off line plus it is easy to read many files at once into a log
file that you then read off line.
184.108.40.206 Eudora is a mail program that runs under MS Windows.
Eudora connects to the mail server over the Winsock. Mail may be composed and read offline, but make sure
that Winsock is running before attempting to send or receive mail.
After Eudora has been installed, it must be configured to point to the
YourMagicHostmail server. To do this, start Eudora and select "Special" from the menu bar. Then
select "Settings". Most of the options are self explanatory.
- Leave the entries for PH, and Finger blank.
- Fill in email@example.com for your POP account (username replaced with your username and
yourdomain.com replaced with your domain name).
- Fill in SMTP server as mail.yourdomain.com, where yourdomain.com is
replaced with your domain name. Note: Some ISPs will not let you use any other SMTP server other
than their own, so you may have to use your ISPs mail server instead. Contact your ISP for
information as to the location of their mail server.
- Under advanced network features, select 90 seconds for your network timeout.
- The option save password should be checked.
- The authentication style should be password option.
- Under connection method, do not check the offline option.
If you have multiple email addresses, you can install a separate copy of Eudora for each email address. Newer versions of
Eudora allow for multiple personalities. You can enter each POP/Login email account as a separate personality and download
mail from all or some of these accounts at the same time.
Eudora "Light" is freeware offered by Qualcom and can be downloaded over the net. Eudora "Pro" must be purchased. Search for
Eudora under Yahoo
for details on how to obtain a copy.
1.3.2 Managing the Linux Account
220.127.116.11 Symbolic Links (redirecting file access)
To link one file to another in the same directory:
Type ln -s fred.htm index.htm to redirect all file accesses from index.htm to the file fred.htm,
while you are in that directory.
To link a file in your current directory to a file in another directory:
Type ln -s /home/username/public_html/directory/joe.htm index.htm to redirect all file accesses from
index.htm to the file fred.htm in the other directory, while you are in the index.htm directory.
18.104.22.168 passwd (changing your password)
Type passwd to change your password. Or type passwd username to change that of one of your ftp users
or pop accounts. You may also change your passwords thru the control panel.
Type zip to zip files and unzip to unzip files. This program is compatible with the zip program for DOS. For example:
$ zip myzip file1 file2 file3
This puts the files file1, file2, and file3 into a new zip archive called myzip.zip. On the other hand, if you had
the archive myzip.zip and wanted to get back the files:
$ unzip myzip
by itself will give you a usage summary, showing nearly all the options
22.214.171.124 du (disk usage)
The Unix command
du -s directory
shows how much disk space is used by a directory and everything below it.
However, you may also check such on the front of your browser control panel for a pre-calculated figure.
If you have an anonymous FTP area, also check du -s /home/username/public_ftp to see how much space
your anonymous FTP users are using.